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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 371-373

Activating transcription factor 3 is not up-regulated in hypospadias patients in Japan


Department of Pediatric General and Urogenital Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Correspondence Address:
Toshiaki Takahashi
Department of Pediatric General and Urogenital Surgery Juntendo University School of Medicine 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421
Japan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0189-6725.125451

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Background: The aetiology of hypospadias is largely uncharacterized. Some of the researchers have advocated that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), an oestrogen-responsive transcription factor, is up-regulated in patients with hypospadias. The purpose is to evaluate the universality of this fact; we studied the expression of ATF3 protein in prepuce tissue obtained from hypospadias and phimosis patients living in metropolitan Tokyo. Materials and Methods: Prepuce tissue was obtained from outer foreskin at the time of surgery, quickly prepared for paraffin-embedded sectioning and stained immunohistochemically for ATF3. Two researchers blindly evaluated immunoreactivity and scored it semi-quantitatively as nil = 0, weak = 1, or strong = 2, to give a final staining intensity score (SIS). Subjects were 18 hypospadias patients and 17 phimosis patients (as controls) who had surgery between January, 2009 and March, 2010. Results: All subjects lived in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan. Mean ages at surgery were 2.9 ± 1.0 and 3.9 ± 2.4 years, respectively (P > 0.05). SIS was not statistically different between hypospadias patients (1.4 ± 0.5) and controls (1.5 ± 0.5), (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggest that ATF3 is not highly associated with hypospadias in metropolitan Tokyo. Differences in ethnicity might have influenced our results.


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