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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 323-325

Burns injury in children: Is antibiotic prophylaxis recommended?


Department of Pediatric Surgery, EPS Fattouma Bouguiba, Faculty of Medicine, Monastir, CP 5000, Tunisia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jamila Chahed
Department of Pediatric Surgery, EPS Fattouma Bouguiba, Faculty of Medicine, Monastir, CP 5000
Tunisia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0189-6725.143141

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Background: Wound infection is the most frequent complication in burn patients. There is a lack of guidelines on the use of systemic antibiotics in children to prevent this complication. Patients and Methods: A prospective study is carried out on 80 patients to evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the control of infections. Results: The mean age was 34 months (9 months to 8 years). There was a male predominance with sex ratio of 1.66. The mean burn surface size burn was 26.5% with total burn surface area ranging from 5% to 33%, respectively. According to American Burn Association 37% (30/80) were severe burns with second and third degree burns >10% of the total surface body area in children aged <10 years old. Scalds represented 76.2% (61/80) of the burns. Burns by hot oil were 11 cases (13.7%), while 8 cases (10%) were flame burns. The random distribution of the groups was as follow: Group A (amoxicilline + clavulanic acid) = 25 cases, Group B (oxacilline) = 20 cases and Group C (no antibiotics) = 35 cases. Total infection rate was 20% (16/80), distributed as follow: 8 cases (50%) in Group C, 5 cases (31.2%) in Group A and 3 cases in Group B (18.7%). Infection rate in each individual group was: 22.9% (8 cases/35) in Group C, 20% (5 cases/25) in Group A and 15% (3 cases/20) in Group B (P = 0.7). They were distributed as follow: Septicaemia 12 cases/16 (75%), wound infection 4 cases/16 (25%). Bacteria isolated were with a decreasing order: Staphylococcus aureus (36.3%), Pseudomonas (27.2%), Escherichia coli (18.1%), Klebsiella (9%) and Enterobacteria (9%). There is a tendency to a delayed cicatrisation (P = 0.07) in case of hot oil burns (65.18 ± 120 days) than by flame (54.33 ± 19.8 days) than by hot water (29.55 ± 26.2 days). Otherwise no toxic shock syndrome was recorded in this study. Conclusion: It is concluded that adequate and careful nursing of burn wounds seems to be sufficient to prevent complications and to obtain cicatrisation. Antibiotics are indicated only to treat confirmed infections.


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