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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 85-89

Prevalence and pattern of birth defects in the two tertiary hospitals in Enugu, South East Nigeria: A hospital-based observational study


1 Department of Surgery, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria
2 Department of Surgery, Neurosurgery Unit, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria
3 Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kevin Emeka Chukwubuike
Department of Surgery, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Park Lane, Enugu, Enugu State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ajps.AJPS_59_20

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Background: Birth defects have medical, surgical and aesthetic consequences. The impact of birth defects is particularly severe in low-income countries where health-care resources are limited. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of birth defects in live newborns delivered at the two tertiary hospitals in Enugu, South East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based observational study carried out on neonates delivered in the maternity units of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku/Ozalla and Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane, Enugu during the periods of January 2015 and December 2018. All the live-born babies born in the two hospitals during this period were recruited into the study. The neonates were examined by a paediatrician for the presence of birth defects. The birth defects were classified according to the system involved and also into major and minor. Results: During the study period, 9492 babies were born, of which 166 had birth defects, which gave a prevalence of 1.75%. The predominant system affected by birth defects was the musculoskeletal system (45.2%) followed by the central nervous system (34.9%), urogenital system (10.8%) and gastrointestinal tract (9%). 13 (7.8%) patients had their birth defects diagnosed prenatally during the maternal ultrasound scan. Fifteen (9%) and 13 (7.8%) mothers of the neonates who had birth defects were diabetics and hypertensives, respectively. Most of the neonates were delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Birth defects are not uncommon. This study showed a prevalence of 1.75% in the two tertiary hospitals in Enugu, South East Nigeria. The most commonly affected system was the musculoskeletal system.


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